Personal issues—such as when, how and with whom they choose to have sex, and when, how and with whom they choose to have children—are at the heart of living a life in dignity." Gender has been used, at times, as a tool for discrimination against women in the political sphere.Women's suffrage was not achieved until 1893, when New Zealand was the first country to grant women the right to vote.Sexism is intended to rhyme with racism." Title page of the seventh Cologne edition of the Malleus Maleficarum, 1520 (from the University of Sydney Library).
Saudi Arabia was the most recent country, as of August 2015, to extend the right to vote to women in 2011.
While almost every woman today has the right to vote, there is still progress to be made for women in politics.
Various feminist movements in the 20th century, from liberal feminism and radical feminism to standpoint feminism, postmodern feminism and queer theory have all considered language in their theorizing.
Most of these theories have maintained a critical stance on language that calls for a change in the way speakers use their language.
In 1957, James Everett, then Minister for Justice in Ireland, stated that: "The progress of organised society is judged by the status occupied by married women." Restrictions on married women's rights were common in Western countries until a few decades ago: for instance, French married women obtained the right to work without their husband's permission in 1965, During the Franco era, in Spain, a married woman required her husband's consent (called permiso marital) for employment, ownership of property and traveling away from home; the permiso marital was abolished in 1975.
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Family Code states that the husband is the head of the household; the wife owes her obedience to her husband; a wife has to live with her husband wherever he chooses to live; and wives must have their husbands' authorization to bring a case in court or to initiate other legal proceedings.Laws, regulations, and traditions related to marriage continue to discriminate against women in many parts of the world, and to contribute to the mistreatment of women, in particular in areas related to sexual violence and to self-determination in regard to sexuality, the violation of the latter now being acknowledged as a violation of women's rights; in 2012, Navi Pillay, then High Commissioner for Human Rights, has stated that: "Women are frequently treated as property, they are sold into marriage, into trafficking, into sexual slavery.Violence against women frequently takes the form of sexual violence.Studies have shown that in several democracies including Australia, Canada and the United States, women are still represented using gender stereotypes in the press Multiple authors have shown that gender differences in the media are less evident today than they used to be in the 1980s, but are nonetheless still present.Certain issues (e.g., education) are likely to be linked with female candidates, while other issues (e.g., taxes) are likely to be linked with male candidates.Both the racist and the sexist are acting as if all that has happened had never happened, and both of them are making decisions and coming to conclusions about someone’s value by referring to factors which are in both cases irrelevant." Also according to Shapiro, the first time the term "sexism" appeared in print was in Caroline Bird's speech "On Being Born Female", which was published on November 15, 1968, in Vital Speeches of the Day (p. In this speech she said in part: "There is recognition abroad that we are in many ways a sexist country.